Reading Comprehension (Unseen)
Table of Contents
3.Read the following passage and answer the given questions:
Yoga is a group of physical, mental and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. Yoga is one of the six orthodox schools of Indian philosophical traditions. There is a broad variety of yoga schools, practices and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The term yoga” in the western world often denotes a modern form of Hatha yoga and yoga as exercise, consisting largely of the postures or asanas.
The practice of yoga has been thought date back to pre-vedic Indian traditions It is mentioned in The rigveda but most likely developed around the sixth and fifth century BCE, in ancient India’s ascetic and sramana movements. The chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear. Varyingly credited to Upanishads. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali dated from the first half of the 1 st millennium CE,and gained prominence in the West in the 20th century. Hatha yoga texts emerged sometimes between the 9 th and 11th century with origins in tantra.
Yoga gurus from India later introduced yoga to the West, following the success of Swami Vivekananda In the late 19th and early 20th century with his adaptation of yoga tradition, excluding asanas. Outside India, it has developed into a posture-based physical fitness, stress-relief and relaxation technique Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more than physical exercise; it has a meditative and spiritual core. One of the six major orthodox schools of Indian philosophy is also called Yoga,which has its own epistemology, ontology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Samkha philosophy.
The impact of postural yoga on physical and mental health has been a topic of systemic studies, with evidence that regular yoga practice yields benefits for low back pain and stress. On December 2016,Yoga was listed by UNESCO asan intangible cultural heritage.
Take the correct alternative (✓)
(i)The religions mention in the passage are —
(d) all of these
(ii)Yoga in India tradition is more than–
(a) physical exercise
(b) physical labour
(c) physical beauty
(d) none of these
(iii) The impact of postural yoga on physical and mental health has been a topic of–
(a) rigid studies
(b) liberal studies
(c) systematic studies
(d) all of these
(iv)The ‘Yoga Sutras of Patanjali’ gained prominence in the West in the–
(a) 20 century
(b) 19 century
(c) 17″ century
(d) none of these
(v) Who adapted the yoga tradition ?
(a) Mulk Raj Ananda
(b) Swami Satyananda
(c) Sri Aurobindo
(d) Swami Vivekananda
(vi) The number of the major orthodox schools of Indian philosophy is –
Answer the following questions :
(i) What is yoga?
Ans. Yoga is a group of physical, mental and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
(ii) What does the term ‘yoga’ in the Western world denote?
Ans. The term yoga” in the western world often denotes a modern form of Hatha yoga and yoga as exercise, consisting largely of the postures or asanas.
(iii) Write about the origin of the practice of yoga.
Ans. The origin of the practice of yoga is unclear. Varyingly credited to Upanishads. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali dated from the first half of the 1 st millennium CE,and gained prominence in the West in the 20th century. Hatha yoga texts emerged sometimes between the 9 th and 11th century with origins in tantra.
(iv) How has yoga developed outside India ?
Ans. Outside India, it has developed into a posture-based physical fitness, stress-relief and relaxation technique.
- State whether the following statements are ‘True’ or ‘False’. Write ‘T’ for ‘True’ and ‘F’ for ‘False” statements in the boxes on the right-hand side. Provide supporting sentences (S.S) in favour of your answers :
(i) Yoga is one of the six liberal schools of Indian philosophical traditions.—- (T)
S.S: One of the six major orthodox schools of Indian philosophy is also called Yoga.
(ii) Hatha yoga texts have their origins in tantra. —- (T)
S.S: Hatha yoga texts emerged sometimes between the 9 th and 11th century with origins in tantra.
UNESCO listed yoga as an intangible cultural heritage.—- (T)
S.S: On December 2016,Yoga was listed by UNESCO asan intangible cultural heritage.
Grammar & Vocabulary
Tick (✓) the correct answer:
I love the Aroma of fresh coffee
(d) none of these
(vii) They opened the kitchen door and a cockroach ran out. (End with: Cockroach)
Ans. They opened the kitchen door and they found running out a cockroach
(viii) It is a pity that our vacation is over. (Begin with: I wish ….)
Ans. I wish that our vacation will over.
(ix) Anil was wrong to lose his temper. (Begin with: Anil ought….)
Ans. Anil ought to lose his temper.
5.Given below are the meanings of four words which you will find in Question No. 3. Find the words and write them in the boxes given on the right-hand side :
(i) Conventional : orthodox
(ii) Fame : intangible
(iii) A list events in order : chronology
(iv) Tradition: heritage.
Writing Describe in details the view from your bedroom window. Does your room overlook a park? A busy street? What are the sights, sounds and smells that you typically see, hear and experience at different times of the day ? When do you enjoy the view the most ? Early morning, in the evening or late at night?
Ans. Every morning, I am awakened from my sleep by a bright ray of sunlight that falls on me through my bedroom window, to remind me that another day has begun. As I do my morning exercises, I usually gaze out of my window to see what is happening outside. The heavy traffic, would as usual, be ceaselessly flowing up and down the massive expressway. Vehicles of all shapes, sizes and colors bustle by, creating quite a din. Occasionally, the traffic police would be busy tearing after speeding vehicles.
Beyond the highway, I have a good view of the busiest port in the world. The past few years have seen a noticeable change in the size of this port. Container ships belonging to various countries anchor at the wharves to load and unload their heavy cargo. The huge cranes, forklifts and other equipment scattered all over the port are used to do the heavy tasks of loading and unloading. Containers of an assortment of colors can be seen piled on top of one another all over the yard.
The calm sea by the shipyard is usually crowded with speed-boats and bum-boats ferrying port, officials and passengers from the ships to the landing area and vice versa.
The little islands around Singapore covered with rich tropical vegetation are also visible from my bedroom. Fantasies of building a beautiful house and living on the one of these exotic islands often come to my mind. If only they could become a reality! When the weather is clear, the outline of the nearby Indonesian islands can also be easily traced near the horizon.
The sea has always fascinated me. My yearning to travel grows as I look out of my window every morning. I would not ever want to exchange the view from my bedroom window with any other that anyone can offer me, as the joy and peace it has brought me is immeasurable.